YoloBox Ultra is the Ultimate All in One Streaming Studio – Videoguys

Discover the game-changing YoloBox Ultra in the blog post, “YoloBox Ultra: A Pocket-Friendly Live-Streaming Studio” by Jose Antunes on ProVideo Coalition. Unveiled as “The Ultimate YoloBox Experience,” this compact device, detailed by Antunes, combines the roles of an encoder, switcher, monitor, recorder, and streaming studio—all within a conveniently pocket-sized package.

Antunes emphasizes the YoloBox Ultra’s ability to support 4K streaming using H.264 and H.265 codecs, making it an ideal choice for simultaneous streaming to three horizontal destinations such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitch, or custom RTMP destinations. Moreover, the device accommodates streaming to two vertical platforms, including popular options like Instagram and TikTok.

Explore the blog for insights into the YoloBox Ultra’s inheritance of professional features from its predecessor, the Pro version. Antunes details capabilities like customizable graphics, chroma key, inviting guests, instant replay, auto-switching, video cropping, and picture-in-picture—highlighting the device’s versatility for content creators.

Key specifications: 

  • Encoder, monitor, switcher, recorder all in one
  • 4K streaming, ISO recording
  • 4 x HDMI & 2 x USB inputs + HDMI out
  • NDI + SRT input & output
  • USB webcam out + external hard drive
  • Stream via ethernet, Wi-Fi, 4G LTE, USB dongle
  • Built-in battery
  • Supports H.264 & H.265
  • Multistream to Facebook, YouTube & RTMP (up to 3 platforms)
  • Multistream to TikTok, Instagram (2 vertical platforms)
  • Live Switch from up to 10 Sources

Discover the user-friendly aspects of the YoloBox Ultra, including its intuitive 8-inch touchscreen display, providing seamless control and monitoring. The HDMI output feature enhances practicality, allowing local monitoring on an optional display for diverse streaming scenarios. Notably, the Ultra’s recording capabilities enable users to capture all video inputs, including program video, in mp4 format onto the built-in SD card or a USB flash drive with a capacity of up to 1TB.

Antunes further discusses the YoloBox Ultra’s robust connectivity options, emphasizing its ability to combine up to five internet sources—4G LTE cellular, WiFi, Ethernet, and USB dongle—ensuring a stable and interference-free live stream. Key specifications, including NDI and SRT input and output, USB webcam out, external hard drive support, and streaming options via ethernet, Wi-Fi, 4G LTE, and USB dongle, are also highlighted.

In conclusion, the YoloBox Ultra, as covered by Jose Antunes on ProVideo Coalition, emerges as a versatile and powerful tool for content creators, offering a comprehensive set of features for on-the-go live streaming. The author provides a detailed exploration of the device’s capabilities, making the blog post a valuable resource for those interested in this innovative live-streaming studio.

Read the full blog by Jose Antunes for ProVideo Coalition HERE

Far Cry 6, SteamWorld Build, and Both Remnant Games Head To Game Pass This Month

The month of December brings many things: cold weather, the holiday season, and this year, a new crop of games on Xbox Game Pass. Highlights this month include Remnant: From the Ashes and Remnant II, giving subscribers a chance to try out both games if they haven’t yet. It also gives them day one access to SteamWorld Build, the latest in the genre-shifting SteamWorld series. And for fans of big-budget open-world adventure games, subscribers will also get access to the latest entry in the Far Cry series. Below is the full list, their dates, and our reviews.

What’s Coming To Game Pass

Remant II

Remnant: From the Ashes (Cloud, Console, and PC) – November 30 | Our Review

Remnant II (Cloud, PC, Xbox Series X|S) – November 30 | Our Review

Spirit of the North (Cloud, Console, and PC) – December 1 | Our Review

SteamWorld Build (Cloud, Console, and PC) – December 1 | Our Review

Clone Drone in the Danger Zone (Cloud, PC, and Xbox Series X|S) – December 5

Rise of the Tomb Raider (Cloud, Console, and PC) – December 5 | Our Review

While the Iron’s Hot (Cloud, Console, and PC) – December 5

World War Z: Aftermath (Cloud, Console, and PC) – December 5

Goat Simulator 3 (Cloud, PC, and Xbox Series X|S) – December 7

Against the Storm (PC) – December 8

Tin Hearts (Cloud, Console, and PC) – December 12

Far Cry 6 (Cloud, Console, and PC) – December 14 | Our Review

What’s Coming To Game Pass Core?

Earlier this year, Xbox replaced Xbox Live Gold with Xbox Game Pass Core. It’s a scaled-down console-specific version of Game Pass that allows players to play online and get access to certain discounts, but instead of Gold’s two free games a month, Game Pass Core members get access to a smaller list of games from the full Game Pass library. There are currently 36 games available. This month, that roster expands by two.

Chivalry 2 – December 6

Totally Reliable Delivery Service – December 6

What’s Leaving Game Pass?

Chained Echoes (Cloud, Console, and PC) – December 15

Opus Magnum (PC) – December 15

Potion Craft: Alchemist Simulator (Cloud, Console, and PC) – December 15

Rubber Bandits (Cloud, Console, and PC) – December 15

A new optimization framework for robot motion planning

It isn’t easy for a robot to find its way out of a maze. Picture the machines trying to traverse a kid’s playroom to reach the kitchen, with miscellaneous toys scattered across the floor and furniture blocking some potential paths. This messy labyrinth requires the robot to calculate the most optimal journey to its destination, without crashing into any obstacles. What is the bot to do?

MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) researchers’ “Graphs of Convex Sets (GCS) Trajectory Optimization” algorithm presents a scalable, collision-free motion planning system for these robotic navigational needs. The approach marries graph search (a method for finding discrete paths in a network) and convex optimization (an efficient method for optimizing continuous variables so that a given cost is minimized), and can quickly find paths through maze-like environments while simultaneously optimizing the trajectory of the robot. GCS can map out collision-free trajectories in as many as 14 dimensions (and potentially more), with the aim of improving how machines work in tandem in warehouses, libraries, and households.

The CSAIL-led project consistently finds shorter paths in less time than comparable planners, showing GCS’ capability to efficiently plan in complex environments. In demos, the system skillfully guided two robotic arms holding a mug around a shelf while optimizing for the shortest time and path. The duo’s synchronized motion resembled a partner dance routine, swaying around the bookcase’s edges without dropping objects. In subsequent setups, the researchers removed the shelves, and the robots swapped the positions of spray paints and handed each other a sugar box. 

The success of these real-world tests shows the potential of the algorithm to aid in domains like manufacturing, where two robotic arms working in tandem could bring down an item from a shelf. Similarly, that duo could assist in putting books away in a household or library, avoiding the other objects nearby. While problems of this nature were previously tackled with sampling-based algorithms, which can struggle in high-dimensional spaces, GCS uses fast convex optimization and can efficiently coordinate the work of multiple robots.

“Robots excel at repetitive, preplanned motions in applications such as automotive manufacturing or electronics assembly but struggle with real-time motion generation in novel environments or tasks. Previous state-of-the-art motion planning methods employ a ‘hub and spoke’ approach, using precomputed graphs of a finite number of fixed configurations, which are known to be safe. During operation, the robot must strictly adhere to this roadmap, often leading to inefficient robot movements. Motion planning using Graph-of-Convex-Sets (GCS) enables robots to easily adapt to different configurations within precomputed convex regions  allowing the robot to ‘round the corner’ as it makes its motion plans. By doing so, GCS allows the robot to rapidly compute plans within safe regions very efficiently using convex optimization. This paper presents a novel approach that has the potential to dramatically enhance the speed and efficiency of robot motions and their ability to adapt to novel environments,” says David M.S. Johnson, co-founder and CEO of Dexai Robotics. 

GCS also thrived in simulation demos, where the team considered how a quadrotor could fly through a building without crashing into trees or failing to enter doors and windows at the correct angle. The algorithm optimized the path around the obstacles while simultaneously considering the rich dynamics of the quadrotor.

The recipe behind the MIT team’s success involves the marriage of two key ingredients: graph search and convex optimization. The first element of GCS searches graphs by exploring their nodes, calculating different properties at each one to find hidden patterns and identify the shortest path to reach the target. Much like the graph search algorithms used for distance calculation in Google Maps, GCS creates different trajectories to reach each point on its course toward its destination.

By blending graph search and convex optimization, GCS can find paths through intricate environments and simultaneously optimize the robot trajectory. GCS executes this goal by graphing different points in its surrounding area and then calculating how to reach each one on the way to its final destination. This trajectory accounts for different angles to ensure the robot avoids colliding with the edges of its obstacles. The resulting motion plan enables machines to squeeze by potential hurdles, precisely maneuvering through each turn the same way a driver avoids accidents on a narrow street.

GCS was initially proposed in a 2021 paper as a mathematical framework for finding shortest paths in graphs where traversing an edge required solving a convex optimization problem. Moving precisely across each vertex in large graphs and high-dimensional spaces, GCS had clear potential in robotic motion planning. In a follow-up paper, sixth-year MIT PhD student Tobia Marcucci and his team developed an algorithm applying their framework to complex planning problems for robots moving in high-dimensional spaces. The 2023 article was featured on the cover of Science Robotics last week, while the group’s initial work has been accepted for publication in the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics’ (SIAM) Journal on Optimization.

While the algorithm excels at navigating through tight spaces without collisions, there is still room to grow. The CSAIL team notes that GCS could eventually help with more involved problems where robots have to make contact with their environment, such as pushing or sliding objects out of the way. The team is also exploring applications of GCS trajectory optimization to robot task and motion planning.

“I’m very excited about this application of GCS to motion planning. But this is just the beginning. This framework is deeply connected to many core results in optimization, control, and machine learning, giving us new leverage on problems that are simultaneously continuous and combinatorial,” says Russ Tedrake, MIT professor, CSAIL principal investigator, and co-author on a new paper about the work. “There is a lot more work to do!” 

Marcucci and Tedrake wrote the paper alongside former CSAIL graduate research assistant Mark Petersen; MIT electrical engineering and computer science (EECS), CSAIL, and aeronautics and astronautics graduate student David von Wrangel SB ’23. The more general Graph of Convex Sets framework was developed by Marcucci and Tedrake in collaboration with Jack Umenberger, a former postdoc at MIT CSAIL, and Pablo Parrilo, a professor of EECS at MIT. The group’s work was supported, in part, by Amazon.com Services, the Department of Defense’s National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship Program, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research.

A mineral produced by plate tectonics has a global cooling effect, study finds

MIT geologists have found that a clay mineral on the seafloor, called smectite, has a surprisingly powerful ability to sequester carbon over millions of years.

Under a microscope, a single grain of the clay resembles the folds of an accordion. These folds are known to be effective traps for organic carbon.

Now, the MIT team has shown that the carbon-trapping clays are a product of plate tectonics: When oceanic crust crushes against a continental plate, it can bring rocks to the surface that, over time, can weather into minerals including smectite. Eventually, the clay sediment settles back in the ocean, where the minerals trap bits of dead organisms in their microscopic folds. This keeps the organic carbon from being consumed by microbes and expelled back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

Over millions of years, smectite can have a global effect, helping to cool the entire planet. Through a series of analyses, the researchers showed that smectite was likely produced after several major tectonic events over the last 500 million years. During each tectonic event, the clays trapped enough carbon to cool the Earth and induce the subsequent ice age.

The findings are the first to show that plate tectonics can trigger ice ages through the production of carbon-trapping smectite.

These clays can be found in certain tectonically active regions today, and the scientists believe that smectite continues to sequester carbon, providing a natural, albeit slow-acting, buffer against humans’ climate-warming activities.

“The influence of these unassuming clay minerals has wide-ranging implications for the habitability of planets,” says Joshua Murray, a graduate student in MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences. “There may even be a modern application for these clays in offsetting some of the carbon that humanity has placed into the atmosphere.”

Murray and Oliver Jagoutz, professor of geology at MIT, have published their findings today in Nature Geoscience.

A clear and present clay

The new study follows up on the team’s previous work, which showed that each of the Earth’s major ice ages was likely triggered by a tectonic event in the tropics. The researchers found that each of these tectonic events exposed ocean rocks called ophiolites to the atmosphere. They put forth the idea that, when a tectonic collision occurs in a tropical region, ophiolites can undergo certain weathering effects, such as exposure to wind, rain, and chemical interactions, that transform the rocks into various minerals, including clays.

“Those clay minerals, depending on the kinds you create, influence the climate in different ways,” Murray explains.

At the time, it was unclear which minerals could come out of this weathering effect, and whether and how these minerals could directly contribute to cooling the planet. So, while it appeared there was a link between plate tectonics and ice ages, the exact mechanism by which one could trigger the other was still in question.

With the new study, the team looked to see whether their proposed tectonic tropical weathering process would produce carbon-trapping minerals, and in quantities that would be sufficient to trigger a global ice age.

The team first looked through the geologic literature and compiled data on the ways in which major magmatic minerals weather over time, and on the types of clay minerals this weathering can produce. They then worked these measurements into a weathering simulation of different rock types that are known to be exposed in tectonic collisions.

“Then we look at what happens to these rock types when they break down due to weathering and the influence of a tropical environment, and what minerals form as a result,” Jagoutz says.

Next, they plugged each weathered, “end-product” mineral into a simulation of the Earth’s carbon cycle to see what effect a given mineral might have, either in interacting with organic carbon, such as bits of dead organisms, or with inorganic, in the form of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

From these analyses, one mineral had a clear presence and effect: smectite. Not only was the clay a naturally weathered product of tropical tectonics, it was also highly effective at trapping organic carbon. In theory, smectite seemed like a solid connection between tectonics and ice ages.

But were enough of the clays actually present to trigger the previous four ice ages? Ideally, researchers should confirm this by finding smectite in ancient rock layers dating back to each global cooling period.

“Unfortunately, as clays are buried by other sediments, they get cooked a bit, so we can’t measure them directly,” Murray says. “But we can look for their fingerprints.”

A slow build

The team reasoned that, as smectites are a product of ophiolites, these ocean rocks also bear characteristic elements such as nickel and chromium, which would be preserved in ancient sediments. If smectites were present in the past, nickel and chromium should be as well.

To test this idea, the team looked through a database containing thousands of oceanic sedimentary rocks that were deposited over the last 500 million years. Over this time period, the Earth experienced four separate ice ages. Looking at rocks around each of these periods, the researchers observed large spikes of nickel and chromium, and inferred from this that smectite must also have been present.

By their estimates, the clay mineral could have increased the preservation of organic carbon by less than one-tenth of a percent. In absolute terms, this is a miniscule amount. But over millions of years, they calculated that the clay’s accumulated, sequestered carbon was enough to trigger each of the four major ice ages.

“We found that you really don’t need much of this material to have a huge effect on the climate,” Jagoutz says.

“These clays also have probably contributed some of the Earth’s cooling in the last 3 to 5 million years, before humans got involved,” Murray adds. “In the absence of humans, these clays are probably making a difference to the climate. It’s just such a slow process.”

“Jagoutz and Murray’s work is a nice demonstration of how important it is to consider all biotic and physical components of the global carbon cycle,” says Lee Kump, a professor of geosciences at Penn State University, who was not involved with the study. “Feedbacks among all these components control atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations on all time scales, from the annual rise and fall of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels to the swings from icehouse to greenhouse over millions of years.”

Could smectites be harnessed intentionally to further bring down the world’s carbon emissions? Murray sees some potential, for instance to shore up carbon reservoirs such as regions of permafrost. Warming temperatures are predicted to melt permafrost and expose long-buried organic carbon. If smectites could be applied to these regions, the clays could prevent this exposed carbon from escaping into and further warming the atmosphere.

“If you want to understand how nature works, you have to understand it on the mineral and grain scale,” Jagoutz says. “And this is also the way forward for us to find solutions for this climatic catastrophe. If you study these natural processes, there’s a good chance you will stumble on something that will be actually useful.”

This research was funded, in part, by the National Science Foundation.

How to Turn Your Corporate Space into an NDI Studio: NDI November – Be – Videoguys

On this Videoguys Live, James, our video production specialist, shares insights on the successful execution of our month-long event, NDI November. Discover the secrets behind transforming any corporate space into an NDI studio, empowering you to host your own engaging virtual events. James will walk you through key considerations, from audience analysis and brand incorporation to the selection of hardware and software for a seamless live stream. Learn valuable tips on using platforms like Crowdcast for scheduling and interactivity, and explore tools such as Vizrt Flowics for captivating graphics. Whether you’re a seasoned content creator or a novice in the virtual event space, this session provides actionable guidance to elevate your live streaming experience.

[embedded content]

Topics To Go Over Today:

  1. Determine your audience
  2. Incorporate your brand
  3. Hardware We used
  4. Remote contribution

Determine Your Audience:
Things to consider:​

  • How will the audience watch?​
  • What time will your show be?​
  • Will they have to register, or will it be open to public?​
  • Do you want interactivity?

We Decided To Use CrowdCast

Incorporate Your Brand
Regardless of if you’re a school, House of Worship, or Corporate office you want to incorporate your brand.​
Incorporate things such as:​

  • Logo Bugs​
  • Lower thirds​
  • Virtual sets​
  • Live sets​
  • B-roll​
  • Keep it consistent!​

Lower Thirds

  • Informational Clarity:​ Lower thirds ensure quick viewer comprehension by displaying speaker names, titles, or key details, minimizing disruptions to the main content.​
  • Branding and Professionalism:​ Consistent branding in lower thirds enhances livestream professionalism, reinforcing brand identity for a polished and memorable viewer experience.​
  • Contextual Updates:​ Real-time updates and announcements through lower thirds keep viewers informed without interrupting the livestream’s flow, ensuring engagement.​
  • Audience Engagement:​ Lower thirds with social media handles and calls-to-action encourage audience interaction, extending the livestream’s reach and enhancing its social aspect.​

Virtual Events:

  • Lighting Consistency:​ Ensure even and consistent lighting on the green screen to avoid shadows or uneven color, enabling seamless integration with virtual sets.​
  • Appropriate Attire and Colors:​ Choose clothing that contrasts with the green screen, avoiding colors similar to the background, and consider the overall color scheme of the virtual set for better visual harmony.​
  • Camera Placement and Distance:​ Position the camera correctly to maintain perspective and keep an appropriate distance from the green screen to minimize spillage and facilitate effective keying.​
  • Avoid Reflective Surfaces:​ Minimize reflective surfaces in the green screen area to prevent unwanted reflections, which can complicate the keying process and impact the realism of the virtual set.​

Our Studio Workflow

 Remote Contribution
Ways to have Guests join​

  • Live Remote Guest :​ A guest joins Live remotely as your stream is going​
  • Live in Person​: A guest joins in studio Live.​
  • Record as Live​: A Guest cannot make the live event, so you pre record in advance as if it were live.​
  • Pre-Produced​: This can be something such as a commercial the guest makes, or a joint effort. ​

The League Of Upcoming Superhero Games

Motive Studio, the team behind Star Wars: Squadrons and the Dead Space remake, has an untitled Iron Man game in the works. This third-person, single-player action game aims to capture, per Motive, “the complexity, charisma, and creative genius of Tony Stark, enabling players to feel what it’s like to truly play as Iron Man.” The game’s line-up includes executive producer Olivier Proulx, who served as producer on the well-received Marvel’s Guardians of the Galaxy. Motive announced the game as being in pre-production, meaning it will likely be a long while before we see any actual footage of it. Iron Man will also be the first game of a longer partnership between EA and Marvel. 

Immune action at a distance

For most metastatic cancer types, there are no reliably effective treatments. Therapies may slow the growth of tumors, but they will not eradicate them. Occasionally, however, treating a tumor in one location will cause untreated tumors elsewhere in the body to shrink or even regress completely — a dramatic but exceedingly rare phenomenon known as the abscopal effect.

Cancer researchers have sought methods to induce the abscopal effect by design. The abscopal effect is thought to arise when dead or damaged tumor cells release antigens that teach some types of immune cells to recognize and attack other and even distant cancer cells. Essentially, the treated tumor behaves like a personalized cancer vaccine that incites the immune system to attack metastasized tumors. The advent of cancer immunoadjuvants, which enhance and sustain the activity of tumor-targeting immune cells, has been a key to unlocking the abscopal effect, at least in the laboratory setting. 

In the clinic, success has proven more elusive. Since immunotherapies can lead to serious toxicities if administered through the bloodstream, they must be delivered directly to the tumor — often by injection. It is difficult for clinicians to target injections precisely to the tumor and impossible to confirm delivery. Once injected, immunostimulatory drugs quickly leak out of the tumor before they have had a chance to take full effect.

MIT researchers, together with colleagues from Mass General Brigham, have developed a polymer gel delivery system that could help translate the promise of the abscopal effect into the clinic. The gel, visible with a CT scanner or ultrasound, solidifies after injection, where it remains in the tumor to release drugs at a controlled rate.

In a study published in Advanced Healthcare Materials, the team delivered the immune-stimulating drug imiquimod in combination with checkpoint blockade therapy to dual-tumor mouse models of colon and breast cancer, which showed improved survival as well as tumor regression in both treated and untreated tumors.

“The field has been seeking the ‘holy grail’ of the abscopal effect for the past 15 years,” says Giovanni Traverso, a senior author of the study, Karl Van Tassel Career Development Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, and a member of the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT. “Now, with drug-delivery materials better adapted for the clinic, it could be within reach.”

Traverso’s co-senior author is Umar Mahmood, director of the Center for Precision Imaging and chief of the Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Avik Som, interventional and diagnostic radiology resident at MGH; Jan-Georg Rosenboom, senior postdoc in the Langer and Traverso labs at the Koch Institute; and  Eric Wehrenberg-Klee, director of the Center for Image-Guided Cancer Therapy and assistant professor at Harvard Medical School, are co-lead authors. Robert Langer, David H. Koch Institute Professor, is also an author of the study.

Defining the problem

At MGH, clinicians saw that of 18 patients that were treated with an intratumoral injection of immunotherapy either just before or after undergoing a procedure known as cryoablation, one patient with metastatic melanoma showed a sustained abscopal effect. In cryoablation, a tumor is injected with freezing gas and then thawed out, with the hope of inducing a system-wide immune response to tumors.

The observation pointed to a promising avenue for achieving the abscopal effect for more patients, but a new tool was needed to address some of the realities of intratumoral injections in the clinic. In addition to the difficulties of delivering intratumoral injections for the clinician, these treatments are costly and infeasible for patients. Because tumors do not retain immunotherapies for long, patients require repeat injections — with sedation — over several days. The clinicians looked across the river to their MIT colleagues for help.

 “My clinical colleagues came to us with this very interesting problem, so we thought, how can we address this from our own chemical engineering perspective?” says Rosenboom.

The interdisciplinary team determined that the injected material would need to be liquid at room temperature during injection, and then solidify once inside the tumor to prevent leakage. For optimal drug delivery, the gel would need to carry a high concentration of drug in a small volume and then release its payload in a controlled fashion over several days. The team planned to add an iodinated and clinically approved contrast agent to make it visible with a CT scan to help clinicians confirm they have successfully injected the material. To help smooth the path of the platform to the clinic, the gel should be known to be safe and biocompatible and the immunotherapy it transports to have proven effectiveness.

“As a radiologist, I can see tumors under CT or ultrasound, but I can’t see the drugs they are asking me to inject!” says Som. “That’s why we designed a formulation for a promising immunoadjuvant that could be image guided by both modalities. This platform should hopefully realize the immense promise of personalized cancer vaccines.”

Adds Wehrenberg-Klee, “When developing new intratumoral immunotherapies, being able to confirm delivery into tumor is a critical variable. Intratumoral immunotherapy relies on the assumption that you are delivering therapy to tumor, but our clinical experience suggests this may not always be true. If we can see what we’ve injected, we can eliminate that concern.”

“As engineers, we needed to solve the problem of how to tune a polymer formulation to achieve injectability, solidification at body temperature, prolonged drug release, and visibility — all at the same time, all while these properties affect one another,” says Rosenboom. “That took us about four years to figure out.”

A solution gels

After investigating several polymers, the researchers found that a three-part polymer called PLGA-PEG-PLGA would help them balance the several competing features required of their platform. The polymer is thermosensitive. With slight changes to its molecular weight (size), it can be adjusted to be liquid at room temperature during injection and more viscous in the warmer environment of the tumor.

The polymer is also amphiphilic, with a PEG block that is attracted to water and two PLGA blocks that repel water, so that it forms a nanoparticle around the hydrophobic drug. Its amphiphilic properties allow its drug-release behaviors to be precisely tuned: the more hydrophobic the PLGA block, the slower the release. The formulation allowed a slowed drug release over four to five days, which was a timeframe previously reported to be effective when injected daily.

A similar version of the polymer has already been studied in clinical trials for delivering a type of chemotherapy, paclitaxel. However, in this scenario, the gel would transport imiquimod, an immunotherapy already approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that is commonly used topically to treat basal cell carcinoma.

Once the gel had been tailored to meet their requirements, the team tested it in mouse models of colon and breast cancer that are usually resistant to immunotherapy. In combination with a type of immunotherapy called checkpoint blockade therapy, they used the platform to deliver imiquimod. Each mouse had two tumors of the same type, but only one tumor was treated. If both tumors regressed, then the researchers could confirm their platform could induce a system-wide immune response to tumors — the abscopal effect.

Overall, the combination of checkpoint blockade therapy and intratumorally delivered imiquimod resulted in improved survival in both colon and breast cancer models. The treatment resulted in an all-or-nothing response, with complete regression of both the treated and untreated tumors in the mice that did respond to therapy. For nonresponders, there was no regression in either tumor. The researchers also tested the combination therapy of gel-delivered imiquimod and checkpoint blockade therapy with and without cryoablation of the treated tumor and found that the two approaches gave similar results.

Because the platform is made from safe materials to deliver an already-approved drug, the team expects that the path to FDA approval will be significantly shorter than for completely novel platforms and therapies. The team is also working with industry partners to adapt the platform for treating other tumor types and to deliver other therapies.

This study was funded in part by a Philips RSNA Research Award, a Schlaeger Research Fellowship, a postdoctoral fellowship from the Ludwig Center at the Koch Institute, and grants from Boston Scientific, the MIT Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation, and the National Cancer Institute.

Ampere Computing: Unlocking a Path to the Sustainable Cloud – AI News

AI News caught up with Victor Jakubiuk, Head of AI at Ampere Computing, a semiconductor company offering Cloud Native Processors. We discussed how they are driving high-performance, scalable and energy-efficient solutions built for the sustainable cloud. In today’s business landscape, artificial intelligence (AI) has been an…